Hi Everyone,

I've posted the third free addendum to my "Max Power: Check Point Firewall Performance Optimization" book at http://www.maxpowerfirewalls.com. This 34-page PDF addendum includes the latest performance-related tips and tricks I've uncovered in my consulting work, along with updates for R80.10. This new addendum includes all tips and tricks contained in the second addendum dated 4/11/2016, with new or changed material highlighted for easy reference.

I have copy/pasted the entire contents (with page number references) below with a minimum of formatting for the benefit of the Google site spiders and any community-based discussion that may ensue. To download a much more pretty version of these including more structured formatting, hotlinks to the relevant Check Point SK's, visual highlighting of new material added since the last addendum, various screenshots, and an introduction to this content, it can be downloaded for free from http://www.maxpowerfirewalls.com

The PDF addendum document may be freely copied and distributed as long as its content and authorship remains intact. Looks like this third addendum's length (34 pages) has reached about 10% of the length of my original book (344 pages), may just have to do something about that...

© 2017 Shadow Peak Inc. www.maxpowerfirewalls.com
This document may be freely copied and distributed provided its contents and authorship remain intact.

Supplementary Material by Page Number

Page 16: If your site does not have the Monitoring Blade present, be sure to check out
the nmon tool discussed in the Page 58 entry below. Check Point has explicitly
disclaimed support for use of the nmon tool, see sk108122: Using the monitoring tool
'nmon' is not supported.

Page 21: If you are unlucky enough to be forced to utilize Emulex NICs (driver name
be2net) on your open hardware firewall, be aware that a nasty firewall stability issue
involving these NICs was fixed in R77.30 and R77.20 jumbo hotfix Take 94 and later.
You'll definitely want to install this fix if using Emulex NICs on your firewall.

Page 26: The book recommended always using an even number of physical interfaces
in a bonded aggregate Ethernet interface. After some reader questions I dug into it a little
further, as this has been an unofficial recommendation floating around for quite some
time. While I was not able to learn the exact nature of the issue, I was assured that it was
an Intel driver issue and that it was fixed in R77.30. However of the four main Intel
drivers shipped with Gaia R77.20 (e1000, e1000e, igb, ixgbe), only the e1000e driver
was updated (from version 1.2.20 to 2.1.4) in the R77.30 release. So unless your firewall
is using the e1000e driver (igb and ixgbe are by FAR the most common though) this
recommendation does not appear to be valid. It is also possible that this recommendation
is a bit of a myth, created by the fact that some networking vendors do not support using
an odd number of physical interfaces when aggregating them using the older
EtherChannel technique.

Based on the CPUG thread below it seems this is just a general recommendation
rather than a strict requirement:

Page 34
: One other potential STP-related issue pointed out by a student of mine is that
different variants of the spanning tree algorithms don't mix well. As an example if two
switches are connected together and one of them is using the original 802.1D standard
STP and the other is using Rapid STP, the various timers will be radically different
between the two and possibly cause network stability issues.

A reader did point out that newer versions of STP are supposed to go into a sort of
“backward compatibility” mode when they detect an older version of STP present, but
this should probably not be relied upon if at all possible.

Page 49
: ICMP isn't just all about ping and traceroute; the various types and codes of
ICMP datagrams can sometimes indicate that performance-impacting conditions are
occurring within the network. Running a netstat -s on the firewall shows counters for
how many different types of ICMP messages have been received by the firewall.
Particular ones that can impact performance and be helpful to investigate further are:
  • Fragmentation required but DF set (Type 1, Code 4)
  • Precedence cutoff in effect (Type 1, Code 15)
  • Source Quench (Type 4, Code 0) – very rare
  • Redirect (Type 5)
  • Time Exceeded (Type 11)

If nonzero values are noted for any of these in the netstat -s output, it is entirely
possible they came from the Internet and you have no control over their generation.
However seeing these types of ICMP datagrams arriving on the firewall's internal
interfaces via tcpdump should be checked out. To display all ICMP traffic on an internal
interface that is not associated with ping testing traffic, use this command:
tcpdump -eni (interface name) icmp and not icmp[0]=0 and not icmp[0]=8

Page 58: One additional built-in CPU profiling tool brought to my attention is nmon:
Added to Gaia in R76 it serves many of the same functions as the top command
for monitoring CPU usage on the firewall but in a more graphical format. As an
example, typing lowercase "L" provides a CPU usage graph; hitting "c" will show a
graph for a for multi-core systems. While most of these CPU monitoring statistics are
also available in top, a significant value-add of nmon is the ability to monitor and graph
disk utilization which is very handy if the wa percentage shown by top is excessive.
Nmon can also graph and monitor network interface activity, and serve as a useful standin
for the Traffic and System Counters reports that are only available via the SmartView
Monitor when a Monitoring Blade license is present. Thanks to Yasushi Kono of Arrow
ECS for submitting this tip. Check Point has explicitly disclaimed support for use of the
nmon tool, see sk108122: Using the monitoring tool 'nmon' is not supported.

Page 59: An easier way to see if cpwd has restarted any firewall processes since the
last cpstart or firewall boot is to run cpview then select Overview. Down-arrow to the
bottom of the page, and you will see the counter "# of monitored daemons crashes since
last cpstart":

If this value is nonzero run cpwd_admin list to determine which daemon(s) are
having a problem.

Pages 59-60
: If while running top you notice a process called kipmi0 consuming an
excessive amount of CPU on an open hardware firewall, this is a known issue and you
should consult sk104316: kipmi0 daemon consumes CPU at 100% on Open Servers
running Gaia OS.

Page 69: If SecureXL is currently disabled on your firewall, you won't be able to use
the "Top Talkers" script mentioned in the book to determine which internal IP address is
hogging connection table slots. Use this command instead:

fw tab -u -t connections | awk '{ print $2 }' | sort -n | uniq -c | sort -nr | head -10

This will show the top ten source IPs consuming slots in the connection table in
descending order, however you will need to manually convert the IP addresses displayed
from hex to decimal like so: 0a1e0b53 =

For the top 10 destinations, substitute $4 for $2 in the awk command above.

Page 73-76: While the historical data reported by the sar command can be useful, it
can definitely be overwhelming unless you have a good idea of what you are looking for.
A picture is worth a thousand words, so if you find yourself staring down the barrel of
hours and hours of poring through sar data trying to find a performance problem,
consider the ksar tool. ksar can be used to graph sar data like this:

While not included with the Gaia operating system, ksar can be downloaded for
free from https://sourceforge.net/projects/ksar/. If trying to figure out a past performance
issue, keep in mind that the incredibly useful cpview tool can be launched in history
mode with the -t option; 30 days of cpview historical data are available by default on the

Page 76: In addition to hitting “1” while running top to see individual core utilizations,
the command cpstat os -f multi_cpu can also be used to obtain this information.
Thanks to Yasushi Kono of Arrow ECS for submitting this tip.

Page 84: At the bottom of this page, a classic recommendation is made to put the rules
with the highest hit counts towards the top of the rulebase. This recommendation is
based on the so-called “top-down, first fit” rulebase matching algorithm that has
remained mostly unchanged since Stateful Inspection was patented by Check Point in the
early 90's. However in a major paradigm shift for R80.10 gateway, security policy layer
evaluation in the Firewall path (F2F) has been significantly enhanced with something
called “Columnar Matching” or “Column-based Matching”. This new optimized
matching implementation works with all types of policy layers such as ordered, unified,
and inline; it is also valid for all Access Control and Threat Prevention layers.

Disclaimer: This is an emerging & undocumented feature of R80.10 gateway, and its
implementation details are subject to change at any time. Some of the information
presented here is based on assumptions and observations I have made that may not be
100% correct.

How can we best take advantage of this new R80.10 gateway feature to enhance rulebase
lookup performance? Let me cut to the chase right here: Try to avoid using “Any” in
all your policy layer rules for as long as possible, but most especially in the Destination
Suppose your rule base starts like this:

When a R80.10 gateway loads a new security policy package into the Firewall Worker
Cores, it creates an indexed table (or perhaps a hash lookup table) to represent all fields
used as matching criteria in the policy. For our sample rulebase, suppose the destination
IP for a new connection is an internal (Non-Internet) address that does not match the
destination of the first five rules. Prior to even looking at the rulebase for this new
connection the gateway consults its Columnar Matching table, and determines that since
it is impossible for this connection to match rules 1-5 based on destination IP address it
can skip these rules and commence top-down, first-fit rulebase matching at rule 6. Why
did it have to start at rule 6? Because rule 6 uses “Any” in its destination field!

While all fields of a policy layer that are considered matching criteria (Source,
Destination & Service for example) can be potentially “skipped over” in this fashion, the
Destination column is the first one examined by the firewall to see if any “skipping”
can occur. Waiting as long as possible to use “Any” in the Destination field in your
policy layers will maximize the number of rules that can be skipped over, and can
significantly reduce policy lookup overhead (and therefore CPU utilization) on the
Firewall Worker Cores. Rules that use object “Internet” and/or negations do not affect
the Columnar Matching feature and can still potentially be “skipped over”. Note that this
feature is completely separate from SecureXL connection templating, however SecureXL
certainly received its share of enhancements for R80.10 gateway (see Pages 239-240
notes for more details).

Page 89: As stated in the book, setting fw_rst_expired_conn to 1 should always be
tried first to gracefully terminate application-based connections that aren't closing
properly and impacting perceived application performance. In some cases however this
will not fully remediate the situation, and you be forced to go one step further with this:
fw ctl set int fw_reject_non_syn 1. A classic example of an application that requires
this firewall setting is SAP HANA traffic. This setting also handles client port reuse out
of state errors when RST packets from the server to the clients get lost (e.g. due to policy
install or packet loss).

Bear in mind however that this setting is quite likely to make your friendly
auditor/penetration tester upset with you, since the firewall will now issue a TCP RST for
all received packets that are out of state and have the ACK flag set. An auditor running a
TCP ACK nmap scan will have it light up like a Christmas tree with tens of thousands of
ports showing up as filtered instead of closed. For this reason, using this setting is
generally not recommended on an Internet perimeter firewall but may be acceptable on
internal firewalls. Thanks to Andrew Craick of Dimension Data for submitting this tip.

Page 90: I found out the hard way with a customer that the TCP State Logging
function was introduced in R77, and is not available on firewalls running older versions
of code. An alternative to this feature on pre-R77 firewalls is using the Account option
in the Track column of the rule matching the problematic traffic. When this option is set
for a rule, an Accept entry is created at the start of the connection just as it is when the
Track is set to Log. However once the connection finishes (FIN, RST, idle time out,
etc.) or every 10 minutes if the connection exists that long, the existing log entry is
converted from a Log type to an Account type.

While the Accounting option can be used to infer connection and session behavior
as described in the book, new to R80.10 management is a feature called “Session
Logging”. When enabled this feature will correlate multiple individual connections into
a “session” that has additional logging information. See the following for more
information: Infinity R80.10 "Cool Feature of the Day" - Session logging

Note that in the R80/R80.10 SmartConsole the Account option is now enabled by
selecting the “Accounting” checkbox in a rule’s Track column. On security
gateway/cluster objects with a version of R80.10 or later, configuring TCP State Logging
can now be performed directly from the SmartConsole as shown here:

Page 97: R77.30 has added the ability to set the “Magic MAC” value via the Gaia web
interface instead of by hand-editing the fwkern.conf file. During the firewall's postinstallation
dialog in the Gaia web interface if “Unit is part of a cluster” is checked, the
new field “Cluster Global ID” will become editable:

The Cluster Global ID should be set identically on all members of the same
cluster, but be a different value for different clusters. R80.10 gateway clusters use a new
feature called “Automatic MAC Magic” by default to automatically derive a unique
Cluster Global ID, and prevent conflicts with other gateway clusters on the same
network. The status of this new feature can be checked with the cphaprob mmagic
command. This feature can also be monitored from a new ClusterXL-based screen of the
cpview tool on a R80.10 gateway under Advanced...ClusterXL, and is backward
compatible with gateways that had their Cluster IDs configured manually in earlier

Pages 98-99: Other good preexisting SKs for troubleshooting unexpected ClusterXL
failovers are: sk62570: How to troubleshoot failovers in ClusterXL - Advanced Guide
and sk56202: How to troubleshoot failovers in ClusterXL.

When trying to troubleshoot intermittent ClusterXL failovers, establishing exactly when
failovers happened and whether they occurred in any kind of recognizable time interval
can be quite time-consuming. However an undocumented clish command option
introduced in R77.30 was recently brought to my attention by Gary Lipets
that provides a an easy way to see when failovers occurred:
show routed cluster-state detailed. This command is valid even if you are not
utilizing any kind of dynamic routing protocol on the firewall itself and only static routes
are in use. Routed is tracked as a pnote in all ClusterXL clusters, and it actively logs all
cluster state changes:

Page 136: The maximum number of total cores supported by CoreXL has been raised
from 30 cores to 40 cores for R80.10 gateway. The limit of 10 Firewall Worker instances
for VSX R77.30 and earlier has been lifted in R80.10, see the following for details:
sk117375: How to add more than 10 CoreXL FW instances to a Virtual System R80.10.

Page 139: Some additional commands to check CoreXL licensing status are:
[Expert]# fw ctl get int fwlic_num_of_allowed_cores
fwlic_num_of_allowed_cores = 8
[Expert]# fw ctl get int fwlic_num_of_allowed_cpus
fwlic_num_of_allowed_cpus = 8
Thanks to Yasushi Kono of Arrow ECS for submitting this tip.

Pages 141-148: Shortly after Max Power was published, an all-new Advanced
Technical Reference Guide (ATRG) for VPNs was created that includes some
performance-related information: sk104760: ATRG: VPN Core. A bit lengthy, but
highly recommended reading if you work with and/or troubleshoot Check Point VPNs on
a regular basis!

Pages 141-148: A new SK for VPN Performance Best Practices has been created by
Check Point: sk105119: Best Practices - VPN Performance. Very similar to what was
presented in the Max Power book with a few extra tidbits you may want to check out.

Pages 141 & 146: On these pages it was mentioned that SecureXL can accelerate
some IPSec VPN encryption/decryption operations. If SecureXL is enabled on your
firewall and you'd like to check if this is occurring run fwaccel stats. Nonzero or rapidly
incrementing values in the Accelerated VPN Path section of the output indicate that
SecureXL acceleration of IPSec traffic is occurring. The SHA-384 hash algorithm has
not yet been implemented in the R77.30 and R80.10 gateway SecureXL Accelerated Path
code. Any VPN traffic verified using this algorithm will be ineligible for
encryption/decryption in the Accelerated Path, and be forced into the Firewall Path (F2F)
on the lead (lowest-numbered) Firewall Worker core for processing on pre-R80.10

In addition to the SHA-384 hashing algorithm, two other algorithms not
implemented in the Accelerated Path for R77.30 and R80.10 gateway are AES-GCM-128
and AES-GCM-256 encryption. While the Galois/Counter Mode (GGM) versions of
these AES algorithms combine integrity and encryption into a single operation that
requires less CPU (and is even able to be accelerated directly in hardware with AES-NI),
all traffic subject to these two GCM-based algorithms will be ineligible for processing in
the Accelerated Path and be forced into the Firewall Path (F2F) on the lead (lowestnumbered)
Firewall Worker core for processing on R77.30 gateway. To be clear, the
generic versions of the AES-128 and AES-256 algorithms are eligible for processing in
the Accelerated Path.

Page 144: A more graceful way to check the status of AES-NI on your firewall is by
running the undocumented command: sim enable_aesni

Page 144: Another new SK extolling the virtues of AES instead of the 3DES
encryption algorithm has been created, and provides tangible AES-NI performance
improvement numbers for the various firewall appliances: sk98950: Slow traffic speed
(high latency) when transferring files over VPN tunnel with 3DES encryption

Pages 144-146: Multi-core IPSec VPN processing is finally supported on R80.10
gateway. Previously only available as a special hotfix for R77.20 (but not R77.30), the
multi-core IPSec VPN feature is enabled by default in R80.10 and alleviates the lead
Firewall Worker Core IPSec VPN processing bottleneck described on these pages. If
this value has been manually set to 1 on your firewall as described in the book, the kernel
variable fwmultik_dispatch_skip_global should probably be set back to 0 after
upgrading your gateway to R80.10.

Page 148: On R80.10 gateway, CoreXL is now fully supported with route-based VPN
(i.e. using VPN Tunnel Interfaces (VTIs)) instead of only with domain-based VPNs.

Pages 149-151
: I'm pleased to report that R77.30 has added the option to substantially
improve Firewall Worker Core load distribution via the new Dynamic Dispatcher Feature
(sk105261: CoreXL Dynamic Dispatcher in R77.30). This new Firewall Worker Core
load-balancing feature is disabled by default in R77.30 but enabled by default on R80.10
gateway; as a general rule of thumb you should consider enabling this feature when the
following conditions are present (but note the warnings for R77.30 below):
  • Firewall has 6 or more total cores
  • Firewall Worker CPU loads consistently vary from each other by >10% **
  • Firewall is NOT using a SAM card (i.e. 21000 series)

** Keep in mind that all IPSec VPN and VoIP traffic can only be processed on
the lead (lowest-numbered) Firewall Worker Core as specified on page 141 (this
is a R77.30 limitation that is no longer present in R80.10 gateway). If there is
substantial IPSec and/or VoIP traffic traversing a R77.30 firewall, exclude the
lead Firewall Worker Core from consideration when applying the 10% rule of
thumb above.

On R80.10 gateway, the Dynamic Dispatcher and Priority Queuing are enabled by
default after both a fresh installation or upgrade of the gateway. Use the command fw
ctl multik dynamic_dispatching get_mode to check the status of these features on

If planning to enable the Dynamic Dispatcher on R77.30, ensure that you have
loaded the latest Generally Available (GA) jumbo hotfix before enabling the Dynamic
Dispatcher on R77.30. The initial Dynamic Dispatcher R77.30 code suffered from
various issues such as the ones below that were rectified in the subsequent R77.30 jumbo

• sk108432: Issues with traffic passing through Security Gateway with CoreXL
Dynamic Dispatcher enabled
• sk108856: R77.30 cluster member might go Down after disabling CoreXL
Dynamic Dispatcher only on one member
• sk108894: Difficulties in connecting to untrusted sites when both HTTPS
Inspection and CoreXL Dynamic Dispatcher are enabled
• sk106665: VoIP traffic, or traffic that uses reserved VoIP ports is dropped after
enabling CoreXL Dynamic Dispatcher

Pages 159-161: These pages discuss the case for re-enabling SecureXL if it has been
disabled on your firewall due to application compatibility issues. Not sure how the heck I
missed such a useful tip when preparing the original Max Power book, but there is a
technique that allows SecureXL to be selectively disabled for certain IP addresses in
R77 and later: sk104468: How to disable SecureXL for specific IP addresses
It involves a table.def change with an f2f_addresses directive that can be made
active with a simple firewall policy push. All traffic matching the IP addresses specified
in this directive will always be sent to the Medium/Firewall Paths for processing. There
is even a hotfix available for pre-R77 firewalls to implement this functionality as well!
Unbelievably useful in environments where SecureXL and all its benefits has to be
disabled just to accommodate that one pesky system or application!

Page 162: When attempting to re-enable SecureXL with IPSec VPNs present, watch
for this issue: sk102742: When SecureXL is enabled, traffic through the VPN trusted
interface is sent encrypted instead of clear. A separate hotfix must be obtained (this fix
does not appear to be included in the current R77.20 jumbo hotfix) or upgrade to R77.30.

Page 163: While disabling SecureXL with the fwaccel off command and re-enabling
it with the fwaccel on command might only cause some minor firewall performance
degradation, in rare cases it can cause noticeable impacts to production traffic.
The most common scenario for temporarily disabling SecureXL is to perform a
packet capture using the tool fw monitor. This tool can only capture traffic traversing
the Firewall Path and cannot always “see” traffic passing through the Medium or
Accelerated Paths. Disabling SecureXL forces all traffic into the Firewall Path and
ensures a complete fw monitor capture.

But there is a better way using a standard Linux tool: tcpdump. This tool is
immune to the state of SecureXL and can “see” traffic in all three paths (SXL/PXL/F2F)
with one exception: if SecureXL acceleration is being performed with dedicated
hardware such as a SAM or Nokia ADP card, tcpdump cannot “see” the traffic and
SecureXL must indeed be disabled in that particular case to ensure a complete capture.
Another advantage of tcpdump is the capability to capture the Layer 2 headers for
analysis (including MAC addresses), whereas fw monitor cannot. However be warned
that attempting to use tcpdump on a SAM-accelerated interface of a 21000 series
firewall may lead to a large number of packet drops.

If you are unable or unwilling to use tcpdump in lieu of fw monitor, and will
need to frequently toggle the state of SecureXL while passing production traffic, consult
the following SKs for hotfixes that should be installed to prevent possible (but quite rare)
traffic disruptions from occurring:
• sk106934: Security Gateway might crash when disabling and re-enabling
• sk109468: Connections are broken for short time after disabling SecureXL, or
after installing a policy

Page 169: While fwaccel stats -s provides useful acceleration packet counters
showing total number of packets processed by the SXL/PXL/F2F processing paths, you
can also view live throughput numbers for each of the three paths in expressed in pps and
Mbps. Run cpview then select Advanced...Network...Path.

Page 172: If you are utilizing 21000-series appliances equipped with a Security
Acceleration Module (SAM) card, reading through the following two all-new SKs to
understand the capabilities and specific optimization strategies for the SAM card is
highly recommended: sk107157: ATRG: Security Acceleration Module (SAM) card and
sk93036: Known Limitations of Security Acceleration Module (SAM) on 21000

Page 173
: There are a plethora of stability fixes for the 21000 firewall units that utilize
the SAM card in R77.30. If using a SAM card upgrading to R77.30 (with the latest
jumbo hotfix) or at least loading the latest R77.20 jumbo hotfix is highly recommended.

Page 176-178: Correction: Changing the IPS Scope setting from “Perform Inspection
on all Traffic” to “Protect internal hosts only” does NOT potentially make more traffic
eligible for the Accelerated Path. Setting “Protect internal hosts only” has a similar effect
to creating an IPS Exception in that it can save CPU time in the Medium Path (PXL). So
while changing this setting does have a positive impact on performance (by potentially
saving CPU time in the Medium Path), it is not for the reason originally stated in the
book (that more traffic is made eligible for Accelerated Path). However there is one
exception to this: on a 21000 series firewall equipped with a SAM card, traffic matched
by an IPS Exception is eligible to be fully accelerated by SecureXL in the SAM card
itself, assuming the traffic is not subject to inspection by another blade that requires
Medium or Firewall Path processing. Configuration techniques that ensure as much
traffic as possible can be accelerated by the SAM card are described in sk94484:
Accelerating traffic with the Security Acceleration Module (SAM) while also using nonaccelerated

Page 194: This section of the book spends a great deal of time trying to reduce firewall
CPU load on the Firewall Worker Cores, most of which occurs in the Medium Path
(PXL) on the vast majority real-world firewalls. R77.30 and later has introduced an
exciting ability to view the top connections by CPU usage. This capability is a subset of
the new R77.30 Firewall Priority Queues feature (sk105762: Firewall Priority Queues in
R77.30), and the good news is that this helpful information can be obtained without
having to fully enable this feature. To obtain this ability run the following command: fw
ctl multik set_mode 1 and reboot the firewall. Now when running cpview select
CPU...Top Connections to see the top individual connections by CPU consumption.
Priority Queues are enabled by default on a R80.10 gateway, regardless of whether the
gateway was fresh-loaded or upgraded.

Page 195-204: R80.10 gateways now have the IPS function fully integrated into the
Threat Prevention policy layer. Instead of having to configure specific IPS Exceptions,
the Threat Prevention policy layer columns “Protected Scope”, “Source”, and
“Destination” can be used to explicitly specify which IPS profile should be applied to
network traffic matching these columnar criteria. Exceptions can still be added to the
Threat Prevention policy layer, but they can potentially apply to the entire Threat
Prevention policy, not just IPS. Some items that were previously listed as IPS
Protections are now separated into the “Inspection Settings” portion of the R80/R80.10
SmartConsole. Changes to these “Inspection Settings” values require a Network Access
policy reinstallation to take effect because they have been separated from the Threat
Prevention policy layer.

Page 208: The book indicates that fw ctl zdebug drop can be used to determine
what non-logged IPS signatures are inappropriately dropping traffic. This is not
completely accurate, because the reason for the drop shown by zdebug by default will be
very generic, and simply indicate it had something to do with IPS enforcement.

Warning: The following procedure will substantially increase the size and
memory requirements for enforcing the compiled policy on the firewall.
Use with caution on production systems.

To obtain the actual IPS signature name in the zdebug output, launch the
SmartConsole tool GUIdbedit and under Table...Global Properties...Properties change
variable enable_inspect_debug_compilation from false to true and reinstall policy to
the firewall. This setting will cause additional debug information to be compiled into the
firewall's policy, such that the actual offending IPS signature name can be displayed in
the zdebug output.

Page 213: If the Website Categorization Mode has been set to Hold as recommended
in the book, and an unacceptable level of latency is encountered categorizing websites for
the URL Filtering function, additional statistics can be enabled in the Resource Advisor
Daemon (RAD). The RAD process handles interaction between the firewall and the
Check Point cloud for dynamic lookups of content such as URLs. Note that this daemon
is also used to update signatures and verify content for the Application Control, Anti-
Malware, and Anti-Virus software blades; therefore statistics are available for these other
three functions as well. To enable statistics for the URL filtering function specifically,
execute the command rad_admin stats on urlf. To view URL caching and cloud
interaction statistics run cpview and select Advanced...RAD:

Don't forget to turn off the statistics gathering with the rad_admin stats off
urlf command when finished!

Page 220: Check Point has created a new SK for HTTPS Inspection Best Practices
which includes some performance-related information, see sk108202: Best Practices -
HTTPS Inspection if you are utilizing the HTTPS Inspection feature. Just as in R77.30
and earlier, the bulk of HTTPS Inspection on R80.10 gateway takes place in the Firewall
Path (F2F) and is not eligible for acceleration. Also keep in mind that the initial HTTPS
handshake and key calculation is performed in process space by the wstlsd and pkxld
daemons on the firewall. If the firewall is experiencing extremely high CPU usage in
kernel space (sy, si, hi, wa) on all cores as shown by the top command, manual process
affinity for these daemons may need to be configured to ensure they receive adequate
CPU slices.

Another example I've seen of possible process space CPU starvation on a
oversubscribed firewall is the Policy Decision Point Daemon (pdpd) component of
Identity Awareness, which maintains the WMI connections to Active Directory
controllers and associated monitoring of Security Log events for AD Query. If the
single-threaded pdpd process cannot obtain enough CPU slices due to a busy firewall
kernel, it can begin to fall behind in timely processing of Security Log events in a large
Windows domain, and formation of IP to user mappings will not occur in a timely
fashion. I'm pleased to report that Check Point has provided a new feature known as the
Identity Collector to help avoid this situation. This is the ability to essentially
“outsource” the extensive overhead of parsing AD Security Logs via WMI to a software
agent running on any Windows system in the domain. The Identity Collector agent
software does not need to be loaded on the Windows domain controller itself. For more
information about the R80.10 Identity Collector see sk108235: Identity Collector -
Technical Overview.

Just to be clear, firewall operations that are executed by a process instead of in the
kernel are not necessarily a bad thing. Most typically these process-based operations are
handling what I would term “potentially unsafe” situations. A classic example is IKE
Phase 1 and Phase 2 negotiations being performed by the vpnd daemon on the firewall,
while IPSec encryption and decryption occurs in the kernel via the SXL or F2F paths. If
a hostile IKE peer tries to crash or flood the firewall with malformed IKE negotiations,
the crash occurs in the vpnd daemon which is immediately and gracefully restarted by
the fwd parent process, and system stability is ensured. If IKE negotiation operations
were handled directly in the firewall kernel, a hostile IKE peer could potentially crash or
significantly impair the entire firewall. This IKE scenario is a particularly good example
since IKE peer authentication via a pre-shared secret or certificates happens very late in
IKE Phase 1, after protocols have been negotiated and a computationally expensive
Diffie-Hellman key calculation has been performed.

Pages 220-221: The HTTPS Inspection feature was significantly enhanced in R77.30
and later. While many of the relevant fixes are included in the R77.20 jumbo hotfix, it
appears that there are many enhancements exclusive to R77.30 that can improve the
functionality and performance of the HTTPS Inspection feature. While the bulk of
HTTPS Inspection operations appear to still occur in the Firewall Path, the firewall
performance impact of Bypass actions and SSL negotiation have been substantially

Page 224: The ISP Redundancy feature is well-known for forcing almost all traffic
into the Firewall Path, even traffic that is not involved with the External interfaces
leading to the redundant ISPs. However loading the R77.30 Jumbo Hotfix (take 15+)
will permit acceleration of firewall traffic when ISP Redundancy is used in
Primary/Backup mode. (Note that if ISP Redundancy’s Load Sharing mode is selected,
almost all traffic will still go F2F) See: sk104679: SecureXL Accept Templates not
created when ISP Redundancy is enabled in Primary/Backup mode.

Page 234: Alternatively, to view the firewall's New Connection Rate
(Connections/sec) from the CLI, run the cpview command and select Network.

Page 239-240: I'm pleased to announce that you will be FAR more likely to see your
entire rulebase become eligible for SecureXL templating in R80.10 than in earlier
firewall versions as shown by fwaccel stat, due to the new R80.10 NMR and NMT
templates. On R80.10 gateway the following objects being present in a rule will no
longer halt templating eligibility for the remaining rules:
• Domain objects
• Time objects
• Dynamic objects
• traceroute service
• dhcp-request service
• dhcp-reply service

The only object types that seem to still halt templating eligibility in R80.10
gateway policies are listed below, so try to move rules utilizing these services towards the
bottom of your rulebase if possible:
• RPC/DCOM/DCE-RPC services
• Services of type Other with a custom matching condition
• Certain rare complex services (i.e. http_mapped, ftp_mapped)

The best part is that these new templating abilities happen by default on R80.10
gateway, and you don't need to do anything whatsoever to enable them. However just
because your entire rulebase is much more likely to be eligible for templating in R80.10
gateway, the rulebase optimization techniques described on pages 240-244 should still be
followed for best performance, and to reduce CPU load caused by full policy lookups on
the Firewall Worker Cores for non-templated connections.

Page 256: To quickly check if the IPS Aggressive Aging feature is currently expiring
connections early due to excessive firewall memory or connection table utilization, run
the command fw ctl pstat on the firewall and look under the System Capacity
Summary section of the output.

Page 258-262: A very nice complement to the SecureXL-friendly blocking
capabilities of the fw samp/sim_dos commands described in the book is the ability to
dynamically receive a real-time list of blacklisted IP addresses from the Check Point
cloud, and have your firewall efficiently block them in the SecureXL Accelerated Path.
This is quite similar to the old Dshield.org “Storm Center” capability but imposes much
less performance overhead. On R77.30 this feature is accessed via the ip_block.sh
script. See sk103154: How to block traffic coming from known malicious IPs for more
details about this little-known feature.

Page 270: In R80.10, Multi-Queue supports a new network driver in addition to igb and
ixgbe: the Mellanox mlx5_core 40Gb driver which is used in the 15000 and 23000 series
of appliance hardware. The Intel l211 driver used for the on-board NIC interfaces on the
3200/5000/15000/23000 appliance models are supported as well, but watch out for this
known issue: sk114625: Multi-Queue does not work on 3200 / 5000 / 15000 / 23000
appliances when it is enabled for on-board interfaces.

Page 275-276: I'm pleased to report that R77.30 has an available built-in fix for the
Hide NAT port allocation failures that are much more likely to occur when Hyperspect is
enabled as discussed in #8. Ports used for Hide NAT source port reallocation can be
dynamically pooled among the Firewall Worker Cores, instead of being statically
assigned. This new feature is not enabled by default. It involves setting the
fwx_nat_dynamic_port_allocation variable from 0 to 1. There is a separate hotfix
available for R77.20 to add this functionality, however it does not appear to be a part of
the R77.20 jumbo hotfix. See sk103656: Dynamic NAT port allocation feature for more
details. In R80.10 gateway if there are 6 or more Firewall Worker Cores configured, by
default the fwx_nat_dynamic_port_allocation variable will be automatically set to 1,
otherwise it will still be 0.

Page 282: If performing lab benchmarking of Check Point firewalls on R77.30, be
sure to enable the following feature: sk105261: CoreXL Dynamic Dispatcher in R77.30
(howver heed the warnings stated in the Pages 149-151 section above). The Dynamic
Dispatcher is enabled by default on R80.10 gateway. Network load-testing traffic is
infamous for its non-uniqueness, which can cause an imbalance of Firewall Worker Core
loading and severely crimp firewall throughput results. Also if performing benchmarking
of HTTPS Inspection on a Check Point firewall, be sure to enable HTTPS Inspection in
“Test Mode” as detailed here: sk104717: HTTPS Inspection Enhancements in R77.30.
HTTPS Inspection Test Mode compensates for similar quirks in HTTPS load-testing
traffic and ensures accurate performance results.

Page 283: If you've reached this section of the book and can't obtain acceptable
performance from your firewall despite following all the tuning recommendations, and no
immediate relief is in sight in the form of newer faster hardware, consider employing this
new R77.30 feature discussed in the Introduction to make the most of what you do have:
sk105762: Firewall Priority Queues in R77.30. Priority Queues is enabled by default on
R80.10 gateway.

R80/R80.10 Management Updates

Page 16: The SmartConsole can directly provide the same Traffic/System Counters
functionality as SmartView Monitor, by right-clicking a firewall object on the “Gateways
and Servers” tab and selecting “Monitor”.

Pages 77-82
: Virtual Links can only be configured from the legacy SmartDashboard
which is accessible from the SmartConsole by selecting “Manage and
Settings...Blades...Configure in SmartDashboard”. The “Virtual Link” SmartView
Monitor report is still available in the R80 SmartConsole by right-clicking the firewall
object and selecting “Manage...Traffic”.

A reader pointed out that the Virtual Links feature covered on these pages is
incompatible with ClusterXL, in that a cluster object will never be selectable as a valid
End Point when creating a new Virtual Link object. Also any gateways with a version of
R77 or higher (whether clustered or not) will also not be selectable as a valid End Point
when creating a new Virtual Link object, due to an issue with the R77.30
SmartDashboard. For the fix see: sk106085: When configuring Virtual Link in
SmartDashboard, the End point combo boxes are blank.

Page 83: To provide the functionality for firewall thresholds as described in the book,
the SmartView Monitor will need to be invoked directly from the SmartConsole. From
the “Logs & Monitor” tab create a new tab with the “+” button, and then select “External
Apps...Tunnel & User Monitoring” as shown here:

Pages 97-98: To filter for Control events on the “Logs and Monitor” tab of the
SmartConsole as described in the book, the proper search field syntax is “type:Control”.

Page 180: In the SmartConsole, IPS Profiles are no longer directly assigned on the
firewall object; this action is performed in the Threat Prevention policy alongside Antivirus,
Anti-bot and Threat Emulation. However for pre-R80 firewalls, IPS Profiles are
assigned in a special IPS “rulebase” that becomes visible if you have at least one pre-R80
firewall defined:

While this screen may look like a typical security policy, you’ll rapidly find that it is
not once you start working with it. For example, the Source, Destination, Protection/Site,
and Service fields cannot be edited at all for pre-R80 gateways! Should you wish to take
more granular control of how IPS protections are applied to network traffic as described
in the book, you are limited to the following:
- In the properties of the gateway object, IPS screen, you can select “Protect internal
networks only” or “Perform inspection on all IPS traffic”. As stated in the
book, the former setting will only apply IPS protections against traffic that is
heading to a non-External (i.e. Internal) interface of the gateway as defined in the
gateway’s topology. The latter setting will apply IPS Protections to all traffic regardless
of where it is headed. Which direction the inspected connection was
originally initiated (i.e. inbound or outbound) does not impact how this setting is
- You can define IPS Exceptions as described in the book for a single IPS Profile or
multiple profiles. With an IPS Exception rule, traffic matched by Source, Destination,
and/or Service can be excluded from all IPS enforcement or a subset of
IPS enforcement. The subset could be a single protection or multiple protections.
For pre-R80 gateways the IPS “policy” in the R80 SmartConsole is really just a place
to define which IPS Profile is assigned to a gateway, and to create IPS Exceptions.

R80.10 firewalls have their IPS settings consolidated in the much more flexible main
Threat Prevention policy, along with all the other Threat Prevention features Anti-Virus,
Anti-bot, and Threat Emulation.

R80.10 gateways now have the IPS function fully integrated into the Threat Prevention
policy layer. Instead of having to configure the IPS Protection Scope and/or specific
IPS exceptions, the Threat Prevention policy layer columns “Protected Scope”, “Source”,
and “Destination” can be used to explicitly specify which IPS profile should be applied to
network traffic matching these columnar criteria. Some items that were previously listed
as IPS Protections are now separated into the “Inspection Settings” portion of the
R80/R80.10 SmartConsole. Changes to these “Inspection Settings” values require a Network
Access policy reinstallation to take effect because they have been separated from
the Threat Prevention policy layer.

Page 181: IPS Signatures are accessed in the SmartConsole by clicking “IPS
Protections” under Threat Tools on the “Security Policies...Threat Prevention...IPS”

Page 186-192: APCL/URLF optimizations are now performed in the main Access
Control Policy on the Security Policies tab, in a separate ACPL/URLF policy layer which
is required for pre-R80 gateways. For R80.10 gateways, APCL/URLF enforcement can
now take place in a single policy layer that is unified instead of in a separate policy layer.
All the APCL/URLF tuning principles described on these pages still apply.

Page 195-196: In the SmartConsole, IPS Exceptions are added in an Exceptions
policy located under “Security Policies...Threat Prevention...Exceptions”.

Page 207: To view all IPS events unfiltered in the SmartConsole, from the “Logs &
Monitor” tab click “Queries” then “Threat Prevention...By Blade...IPS Blade...All”.

Page 212: The Application Control & URL Filtering Engine Settings described in the
book can be accessed from the “Advanced Settings” button on the “Manage &
Settings...Blades” screen in the SmartConsole:

Page 214: Because the logging options for APCL/URLF are now integrated into the
main Access Control Policy in the SmartConsole via the APCL/URLF policy layer, the
options available in the Track field of the rulebase have changed from those presented in
the book:
• Network Log: (Replaced in R80.10 with “Log”) Generate a log with only the
basic network information such as IP addresses and ports (application/category
information will NOT be included). On a pre-R80 SMS, this setting is equivalent
to setting the Track column to “Log” in the main rulebase (Firewall tab..Policy),
but setting the Track column in the APCL/URLF policy rule to “None”.
• Log: Includes network-level, application/category, and Content Awareness
logging. This setting is equivalent to setting the Track column to “Log” in the
main rulebase, and the Track column to “Log” in the APCL/URLF policy on a
pre-R80 SMS.
• Full Log: (in R80.10 this is called “Detailed Log”) For pre-R80 gateways, this is
equivalent to the Log option described above. For R80.10 and later gateways, this
option provides additional logging for application/category, even if an explicit
application/category was not specified in the policy rule.
• Extended Log: (R80.10 only) Provides all individual URLs visited for a
matching rule, and is the equivalent of setting “Complete Log” on a pre-R80
APCL/URLF policy rule. This logging option is likely to impact firewall
performance and should be used sparingly.
• Accounting Checkbox: Equivalent to the “Account” track option described in
the “Supplementary Material by Page Number” section of this document. While
the Accounting option can be used to infer connection and session behavior as
described in the book, new to R80.10 management is a feature called “Session
Logging”. When enabled this feature will correlate multiple individual
connections into a “session” that has additional logging information. See the
following for more information: Infinity R80.10 "Cool Feature of the Day" -
Session logging
• Suppression Checkbox: This option will consolidate numerous identical logs
matching the rule over a period of 3 hours into a single log entry.
Page 219-220: IP Fragmentation settings can be accessed from the “Inspection
Settings” button located on the “Manage & Settings...Blades...General” screen in the

Page 234: In the SmartConsole, the New Connections Rate can be accessed by right-clicking
the firewall object from the “Gateways & Servers” tab, selecting “Monitor”, then
selecting the “Network Activity” hyperlink.

Page 255: The Aggressive Aging settings are accessed from the “Inspection Settings”
button located on the “Manage & Settings...Blades...General” screen in the R80

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